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Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Gas of Extremely

Low Concentration on Absenteeism of


Norio Ogata and Takashi Shibata
Taiko Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan
Gas-generating devices of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) are used as deodorant of rooms. We
happened to use a commercial tabletop deodorant canister that releases extremely low-
concentration ClO2 gas in a school classroom as deodorant. We found retrospectively and
unexpectedly that during a period of 38 consecutive school days the rate of schoolchildren
absent from the school was markedly lower (1.5%) in a classroom where the ClO2 device
was placed than that (4.0%) in a classroom where it was not placed. The percentages of
absenteeism between these classrooms (1.5% vs. 4.0%) were significantly (p < 0.00001)
different. The predominant causes of absenteeism during the period were common cold and
influenza. Judging from the known virucidal activity of ClO2, our unexpected finding in the
school classrooms strongly suggests the usefulness of extremely low-concentration ClO2
gas to prevent respiratory viral diseases in semi-closed areas, such as theaters, hospitals
and aircraft, without necessitating evacuation.
Corresponding author: Norio Ogata, Phone +81-6-6382-3100, Fax +81-6-6382-1152, E-mail
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General ClO2 Information and Use Benefits

  • Gas
    Purity APS products produce ClO2 gas. When used, the gas widely penetrates facilities and
    effectively seeks out areas often overlooked by hard surface disinfectants. This is especially
    important in HVAC systems that control the flow of air in a facility. It is also especially
    important in hard to reach areas and in areas where porous surfaces, chain link fencing,
    cracks, crevices and other surfaces are often overlooked in a routine disinfecting regiment.
    Chlorine dioxide is widely recognized as being a highly effective biocide with superior
    efficacy against viruses, spore forming bacteria, and fungi, as well as protozoan parasites
    like giardia and cryptosporidium. It was the principal agent of choice used by the US
    Government in the decontamination of buildings after the 2001 Anthrax attacks. ClO2
    has also been shown to be an effective agent at combating airborne pathogens at
    concentrations well below permissible OSHA human exposure levels and is therefore
    considered by numerous studies to be a useful preventative against various airborne
    pathogens. In addition, ClO2 has been shown to have synergistic effects when used in
    combination with disinfecting agents enhancing the overall effectiveness of sanitation
    regiments. (We are making no such claims)
    Biofilms house a variety of pathogens and are hard to penetrate. Not surprisingly it has
    been found that substantially longer contact times and/or much higher concentrations of
    biocides are required than generally recognized to reach organisms hidden in these
    biofilms. Because of its mechanism of action and its affinity for water, studies have shown
    ClO2 is particularly effective at removing and controlling biofilms, thus exposing organisms,
    and making overall disinfection more effective. (We are making no such claims)
    Unlike Chlorine, ClO2 does not adversely react with organic compounds and as a result
    does not produce unwanted carcinogenic chlorinated volatile organic compounds (V.O.C.s)
    and trihalomines. In fact, instead of combining with the aromatic rings of organic
    compounds, ClO2 actually breaks these rings apart reducing levels of chlorinated organics.
    This makes ClO2 use environmentally sparing! Also, because ClO2 does not react or
    combine with organic compounds, much more of it remains available to do its job.
    KennelSol APS products are biodegradable, decomposing in sunlight and heat into
    nothing more than salt.
    Because ClO2 has a high affinity for moisture it seeks out and penetrates areas where
    viruses, bacteria, and molds congregate. This is especially important in HVAC systems that
    control the flow of air in animal care facilities.
    Because chlorine dioxide has been shown to be an effective agent at combating airborne
    pathogens it makes it an ideal consideration for use in isolation wards where airborne
    pathogen disease transmission is a concern. (We are making no such efficacy statements
    and or claims)
    Because ClO2 breaks down the aromatic rings of various organic compounds it makes it a
    superior odor eliminator by destroying odors at their source. It is effective on all animal
    associated odors like feces, urine, and vomit, as well on other unwanted odors like mold,
    mildew, skunk, and even smoke.
    ClO2 is less corrosive than chlorine and almost negligible at use concentrations, and has a
    neutral pH

Chlorine Dioxide Effectiveness

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